Uses Of Commercial Crops:Health Benefits Of Cotton is the most important cash crop of India and plays a crucial role in the industrial, and agricultural economy of the country. Cotton is the backbone of our textile industry as it produces raw material (cotton fiber). In India cotton provides subsistence to 6 million farmers and also 30-50 million people are employed by cotton production. Cotton is a water craving crop and around 5-7% of the water for irrigation is used for cotton cultivation. Cotton Seeds (Binola) is used in Vanaspati industry and also be used as part of grain for milch cows to get better milk. In this article you will know about conditions for cotton farming, different methods of farming, and organic cotton farming.
Temperature: Cotton can be grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas and requires a temperature between 24°C - 30°C.
Climate: Cotton grows in warm and moist climatic conditions. Where summer is long and where there is salinity in the soil.
Rainfall: 100-200cm rainfall is necessary for farming of cotton and moisture in wind is required.
Soil: Cotton is grown on black soil and should have pH range between 6- 8 on the scale. The depth of the soil should not be less than 20-25 cm. Agriculture experts’ advice for soil test before farming.
Land: Plain lands are suitable for cotton production, and drainage system is necessary for farming of cotton.
About 75% of cotton is grown in Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and Rajasthan. Cotton sowing and harvesting differ in different parts of the country and depends upon climatic conditions. In Punjab and Haryana, cotton is sown in April-May, and it is harvested between December and January because there is no winter frost in these areas.
In Tamil Nadu, it is grown both as Kharif and as Rabi crop. Here rainfall starts from September and cotton is sown in October. Most of the crop is grown and mixed with other Kharif crops such as Jowar, Ragi, and some other vegetables.
Telangana farmers increased cotton cultivation by over 26.5%. It has prompted state government to start arrangements for procurement of fiber crop and advance.
In cotton farming, the preparation of flatbed is essential, and it can be done by ploughing, and disc harrowing. Both ploughing and harrowing should be followed simultaneously.
It is very important method and it should be followed by cotton and other crops such as sugarcane, hybrid sorghum, and banana.
Upland cotton is originated from Gossypium Hirsutum species, and other varieties like Hirsutum x Hirsutum or Hirsutum x Barbadense are preferred to grow in India.
Only tested seeds should be used for irrigated cotton. Delinted seeds of 3kgs - 3.5kgs per hectare are preferred.
Maximum plantation per hectare of irrigated hybrid varieties considered to be 7000 to 8000 per hectare. Here you can the measurement of row planting.
2.5(inches) x 5(inches) x 5(inches) or 3(inches) x 4(inches) x 3(inches). Spacing of 4(inches) x 4(inches) (Heavy Soil) and 3(inches) x 3(inches) (Medium Soil) are implemented in single row.
It is most effective way of watering in cotton farming. It increases the yield of cotton. In India, yields were doubled by drip irrigation compared to yield obtained from flood irrigation method.
Cotton can be picked by hand or by machines. Manual picking is slow, but it is a good method for protective fiber characteristics of cotton. Boll opening is the first method which pushes fibers from the place where it is planted for weeks, before being exposed to external conditions. Boll opening method is gentle and doesnt affect fiber quality. If the open bolls are exposed for a long period of time in fields, cotton may change its color and fiber diminish.
Organic farming is aimed at conversation and consumption of all natural resources for profitability under guiding factors of sustainability of the farm. Earlier, most of the cotton cultivation in the country was eco-friendly without using any toxic chemicals in production. Cotton farming using organic methods helps farmers to improve their productivity, and it is a straight message to the agriculture industry that not to use any chemicals in farming.
Organic farming should not neglect and while choosing a site remember that the fields with high soil erosion and sustained weeds are not good for organic farming.
Farmers who follow organic farming for reduction of cost and to increase their profits. They use acid-delinted seeds to avoid seed infections.
Improvement and maintenance of organic matter of the soil are important in organic cotton production. Organic manures restores crop variations and form components for maintaining soil fertility.
Crop rotations play a vital role in restoring soil fertility and minimizing damage due to insect pests, and weeds. High nutrient-exhaustive rotations are to be avoided, and rotations with the plant are recommended for locality may be adopted.
I. Use of fertilizers and pesticides are harmful to crops. The organic cotton production relies on non-chemical inputs and decreases pollution hazards.
II. Using fertilizers leads to the destruction of soil organisms, and it may cause to soil health creating an imbalance in natural predators of cotton pests.
Modern production in farming is expensive, and most of the farmers from Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra are committed to suicide due increase in expenses without any profit from the cotton farm. Organic farming helps creates rural employment, and use of resources are less compare to modern farming which reduces expenses.
Initial Investment in cotton farming is high compared to other crops but the profits are also high in cotton farming. Organic cotton is used in the clothing industry for past few years. Various products are made from organic cotton like jeans, pajamas, shirts, t-shirts, pillows, sheets, bags, and other clothes.